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Human Resource Management


Human Resource Management helps an organization to reach the destination properly by maintaining internal and external factors that can affect an organization negatively as well as positively. HRM has many different roles and functions to apply in the company. The aim of this paper is to identify and relate all aspects of Human Resource Management from the perspectives of a particular company named Air-lift.

Concept of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management refers to some internal aspects of an organization that helps an organization to gain success by completing those functions properly. HRM deals with various aspects including planning to run the company properly, maintaining proper recruitment policy, and analyzing all aspects of the company. HRM helps to build an effective team for the company to gain its aims. In terms of nosiness and professional perspectives, Human Resources Management is regarded as a continual procedure.

Functions of HRM

HRM has mainly two major functions in every organizational perspective. The first function of HRM is managerial functions and the second function is operational functions. These two functions has also some subordinator functions regarding planning management, Organizational functions, management staffs in the company, Proper direction to the employees, and controlling process of the subordinates.

Strategic Roles of HRM

As mentioned above, HRM has different functions regarding the level of practicing HRM. Every sector in our life has the contribution of HRM, directly and indirectly. HRM roles can be mentioned mainly in three sections, such as HRM roles at the Corporate or business level, HRM roles at the social level and HRM roles at the professional level.

In corporate or business sector, HRM helps to search and evaluate the talent to run the company properly to the target. HRM alleviate the loads of the tasks in the organization. But HRM emphasizes on the organizational factors to increase the power of productivity in the company. So the company can gain success gradually from the very initial period of the company.

Conflict Management

HRM Skills for Sustainable Performance

So, Human Resource Management skills are a must need to maintain the organization properly. Perfect skills in HRM help an organization to attain its goals in a specific time frame. It also helps to keep the development process continues and makes the organization most sustained. Sustainable performance can be gained by the company by following the proper strategy of HRM. In this way, applying for departmental roles in every sector of the company. This process also aids an organization to achieve sustainable development and keep continuous the best performance.

Published By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Retail 2022: 5 Technologies

Retail 2022: 5 Technologies

The marketing strategy is changing every single year. Many new ideas and methods are added in the marketing and shopping sector to ease customers’ shopping experience. Every technology has positive and negative features. The most effective 5 technologies in the retail business will be discussed along with their positive and negative features.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Beacons

The first technology discussed in the video to become easier retail products in the shopping mall is Beacon. Beacon is a very simple and tiny wireless device that is featured with Bluetooth low energy favor to transmit and provide signals continuously simultaneously to shopper’s device like smart mobile phones. This device also helps retailers to find out the actual locations of the shopping mall which is finding a customer to buy a product. Beacon signal Id provides a signal to customers’ smart devices.

Many companies already introduced this technology to their retail shopping mall to find customers and buy products such as Macy’s and Barney’s.  Beacon also helps to save all information of customers as to which products find a customer and also helps to send those types of products advertising to the customer’s mobile phones. As every technology has positive and negative features, in this term, there are also some disadvantages of the beacon. Beacon system provides information about customers’ choices to the retailers. This is a negative feature of beacon as retailers can use the customers beyond of marketing perspectives and this violets secret of the customers also.

In beacon technologies, BLE is used to transmit signals and this is a very confined service as if the customers do not active the Bluetooth service of their mobile phone then the beacon will not be able to transmit signals between customers and retailers. Beacon will not provide data to customers if the customer does not install the mobile application of a particular brand’s specialized app. In this circumstance, beacon relies on a third-party service and this is a very silly opportunity in this digital marketing system. Beacon system should be improved more as this can be a very effective system in the retailing sector.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Facial Recognition 

Facial recognition is another very effective technology that uses in retailing. The digital facial recognition system was introduced around 2006 by using facial algorithms. A facial recognition system can scan almost 16000 things of a person by evaluating his faces such as emotion, the situation of mind, mental tendency, and these types of things. Facial recognition is also used in retailing to identify customers’ choices and needs and experiences. It helps retailer staff to find out which types of products customers want to buy. Using this technology a retailing company can recognize a customer who entered their shopping outlets and mall.

There are also some negative aspects of facial recognition. Sometimes facial recognition does not provide accurate information about customers. An analysis shows that facial recognition provides accurate information only 10 times among 100 times trials. In this context, retailers may face difficulties to identify their customer’s needs and choices. Facial recognition can recognize people’s 16000 things only from the front part of the face and this technology cannot scan properly from the variant pose of the face.

Facial recognition is not able to scan accurate information when a customer gets older as the facial recognitions system saves data in previous. The facial recognition system is not able to gender identification and in this situation, retailer staff will not able to justify customer’s needs. This technology can save the data of customers and also violets human basic secrets.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Robot Assistants

Among the 5 technologies in the retail business, robot assistant is very vital. The Robot Assistant indicates using a robot like a human body in a shopping mall that helps customers by artificial esprit. This technology made it easy to help a customer in a shopping mall to choose and buy a particular product and also help to find specific shelves or sectors in the shopping mall.

The inclusion of robotic technology in retailing market has developed proficiency as well as the sequence of the working process. On the other hand, to increase the amount of productivity, the robotic assistant creates an empirical shopping journey for the customers. In this technology, multiple languages inputted to identify customers several customers’ languages. Besides the potential usefulness of robotic assistants, there are various disadvantages of this technology in human society.

Due to the use of this technology in huge amounts, a potential crisis has arisen as human being loses their jobs. This is a big blowing for use of a robotic assistant. To start this technology the costs of initial establishment are very high that all companies will not able to use this technology.

 The Supermarket 2022: A vision for the Future

Advantages and Disadvantages of Smart Mirrors

Smart Mirror is a digital technology that consisted of two parts digital mirrors that display several views. This technology uses in many sectors nowadays. This technology is also using to serve customers to choose the better products by displaying various views. The Smart Mirrors technology also helps to identify different forms of customers. Such as which products will be perfect for the winter season and which will be perfect for the rainy season.

Smart mirror technology is very costly to use in the retail shop. The Smart Mirrors technology is not very available although everywhere. Sometimes the display image does not represent the actual views and customers can frustrate to buying the product. This technology is not able to identify real views if customers do not stand in a specific angle. The Smart Mirrors technology also can confuse customers to choose the exact product.

Location-Based Marketing

Advantages and Disadvantages of Auto Checkout

Auto checkout is also a very effective technique to use in the retail marketing sector. This technology helps customers to pay in the self-payment process by using this technology. Using this technology there is no hassles or challenges to face by customer. By using this technology a customer can pay the actual payment amount by just scanning products barcodes. This technology uses in Amazon. This technology also has some challenges although.

Consumers already repine about loud sounds of auto-checkout machines. If the sensor disables then the market may face difficulties to get payment. This technology developed more to use generally. These 5 technologies in the retail business play very crucial role.

Prepared By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Supermarket 2022: A Vision of the Future

Supermarket 2022: A Vision of the Future

As customer behavior is changing day by day, many things should be emphasized by the retailers to deal with customers’ needs and behavior. It is very important to design malls and products as customers want. The supermarket 2022 showed some key aspects of retail stores that would be in the future. The main point of this discussion is a traditional and classical disruption in the supermarket.

In previous, peoples tend to shop weekly in the supermarket while today customers want to buy products from online platforms rather than going to the supermarket. This can be the very threat of supermarkets. With the growth of huge numbers of a private online brand that serves customers as their needs, in this context, people do not eager to go to the supermarket.

Location-Based Marketing

Companies now offer huge discounts to buy products online as well as comparatively lower size market than the supermarket. In these circumstances, customers try to buy products from lower price platforms as they get according to their needs regarding qualities and price. As supermarket is traditional style marketing system, which is the reason to fewer uses of a supermarket than New retailing system.

Through online marketing, customers get products within a very short time. And this is also a cause of less use of supermarkets. If a supermarket can be designed with huge technological supports then the customer will eager to use supermarkets. Such as self-checkout, purchasing products via digital method rather than manual systems. As the proportion of these two payment systems is 80% self while 20% manual process follows.

The Marketing Strategy

The marketing strategy is changing every single year. Many new ideas and methods added in the marketing and shopping sector to ease customers’ shopping experience. Every technology has positive and negative features. In this context, the five most effective technologies discuss as mentioned in the video with positive and negative features.

Prepared By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Location-Based Marketing


Location-Based Marketing refers to the direct way and method that indicates to use a mobile phone’s location to choose nearby marketing or business. This system is a process to send a text to customer’s phone about discounts of products of a particular company. To do effective this system customers need to install an application on mobile. Location-based marketing is very important to collect customers’ information of customers’ location using GPS.  After analyzing data of customer’s location, a company can identify their products price as well as products qualities as customer’s trends of buying.

Location-Based Marketing

More than 3 billion mobile phones in the world, and in 2019 almost 88% of marketers location information to target their customers. Among them, almost 71% of people responded to the retailers buying products with huge discounts and responded to location-based marketing with discount prices rather than specific high-quality brands. Almost 30% of customers responded that they are available to buy products from anywhere but they must need a specific brand. The advertisements of mobile location-based will surpass around 96 billion around 2021 that is a huge number that retailers will be able to get customers via location-based marketing process.

Around 2022 almost 48 billion customers’ vehicles will be connected to location-based features. And that will be another huge opportunity for the retailers to target customers. In this process, the total value of mobile and online coupon redemption will increase from 47 billion dollars to 90 billion dollars around 2023.

The Hamptons Machinery

The Voice Analysis Commerce

The voice analysis commerce also will increase to 40 billion dollars from 2 billion dollars. And in this context, 50% of customers will be location-based. There is a huge concern about location-based marketing retailers will get information about customers. And it violet the privacy of a person. In this perspective, the question about the ethical value of location-based marketing arises.


As in this process retailers can justify and identify customers’ personal choices and habits. In this case, it is not ethical in terms of human rights. Besides, tracking mobile location a tradition also introduced to identify customers’ habits over phone calls. This is also an ethical violation. Personal privacy violates completely in this marketing system that should improve to protect personal privacy safe.

Written By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Conflict Management


Every concept has a positive and negative impression towards the goal. Conflict management is a very important thing that affects a team and teamwork. The conflict has also negative and positive outcomes. The term conflict management indicates the method of managing existing conflict within any particular organization or company. By applying proper management policies, it is possible to control negative conflicts. Conflict management has many goals such as to ensure better performance of a team gradually.

Critical Discussion on conflict management in the context of Hamptons Machinery Company

The discussion of conflict and management of conflict includes many factors that help to understand the term and to improve properly. There is no team where conflict does not exist. As the conflict has mainly two types of conflict that are negative and positive conflict, within every team or company these two conflicts exist. In this context, The Hamptons Machinery Company also has negative and positive conflicts. Conflict can also be divided into a functional and dysfunctional conflict where functional conflict is very helpful for the team and dysfunctional conflict can harm the team in many ways. To develop conflict there are various reasons.

Positive and Negative Conflict

Positive conflict leads to a discussion among the members of the team. It helps to create new and effective ideas to reach at destination perfectly. Positive conflict paves the way for a solution. It also helps to reach the goal with everyone. Positive conflict helps to motivate everyone to focus on work. Negative conflict creates a bad impression and creates tension within the team. Negative conflict adversely affects the performance of all members of a team. It also distracts team members from the mutual and reciprocal cooperation to attain the goals.

Conflict makes differences among team members and turns away from the target. Negative conflict can turn into positive conflict by following some steps. There are various ways to respond to negative conflict. Conflicts can manage by discussing with the team leader or with the authority. Conflicts can also be resolved through open and frank discussion about the current problems and situations. If a member focuses on his job rather than conflict then it is possible to control negative conflicts. There is also a scholarly model to manage conflict within a team.

The Dual Concern Model

The Dual Concern model is a very effective method to manage conflict by analyzing self-control power and analyzing other factors. The utmost causes of conflict are dissimilation among team members and in their thinking styles to work a particular job. Every individual has a different style of thinking and different style to perform a particular task, in this situation conflict can grow within a team. Not everyone has the same ability to understand the work and everyone cannot support the team equally, this is also one of the causes of conflict. Not everyone has the equal consent or agreed mentality to achieve goals which is another reason for growing conflict. Conflicts also can arise within a team if the workers are not promoted according to their qualifications.

Processes of Conflict Management

There are almost five processes to maintain and resolute conflict within a team including competing mode to negotiate the conflict, accommodating mode to include positive outlooks, collaborative mode to maintain all member’s emotional situation, compromising mode to minimize conflict, and avoiding mode to remove negative aspects. Among these five modes, the competing mode refers to win-lose perspectives, while the accommodating mode indicates the reverse of this mode and that is lose-win perspectives in terms of self-satisfaction.

On the other hand, collaborating mode refers to win-win approaches while avoiding mode indicates the reverse of this mode and that is lose-lose approaches. And the last part of these five modes is the compromising mode that helps a team or organization to find the best outcomes by managing conflict. The Compromising mode refers to reaching a solution through mutual understanding among team members. Among these five modes, the best mode is the compromising mode as this mode focus on working with all members of the company discussing the problems, arguments, and debates. As a company, The Hamptons Machinery Company uses this mode in its managing and practical area.

Read more about The Hamptons Machinery Company

 Recommendations based on the above discussion

After the above discussion on various issues such as conflict and conflict management process in the Hamptons Machinery, it is possible to say that, the company is very conscious about their positive and negative conflict based on internal and external factors. But the company should emphasize some things such as the initial conflict management process rather than delay response. The company should focus on finding out hidden negative conflicts that are grown in employees. Negative conflict can be resolved very effectively by applying conflict mode. Compromising mode is the best mode to deal with negative conflict and the company should emphasize more on this mode to solve the problems, and to remove weaknesses that exist in the company.


Conflict is a basic thing that exists in every team, company, organization, or group. Conflict is not bad totally. As mentioned before it has mainly two aspects. When a negative aspect arises in a company or team it should resolve as soon as possible. On the other hand, without conflict, the company cannot find out its mistake. So, Conflict helps effectively.

Prepared By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

The Hamptons Machinery Company

The Hamptons Machinery Company

Hamptons is a machinery company that belongs to Ireland and this company produces the parts of aircraft. The Hamptons is an effective team-based company and emphasizes productive team effort. Hamptons Company maintains a division of working place and every step of the company are drafted in details. The founder of the company is a visionary the founder emphasizes gaining expected results on a collective effort by team members. Hamptons Company also accents on to find out the faults of the company and try to eradicate the problems.

Hamptons Machinery Company provides necessary training equipment to their employees and workers. By setting particular aims the company tries to gain expected goals. Hamptons also recruit their employees by providing an official acceptance letter as well as the company provides testimonials to the employees as their recognition of the job. Hamptons also maintain strictly human resource management.

An ideal team consists of main four things that are collective goals and objectives, collective agreements or commitments, use of resources collectively, and all team members taking risks collectively. Conflicts prevail in The Hamptons Machinery Company like other companies. But the strategy to respond to the conflict is very effective. The Company tries to find out their negative conflicts and turns them into positive conflicts and in this way, the company gets better results day by day.

Teams and Teamwork


To attain the expected result in the organization, building an effective team and ensuring team effort is the prerequisite. A team can be developed by some people who are wanted to gain the same target by collective effort. Teamwork helps to run an organization properly. Teamwork also makes easy the tasks of the company or organization. To build an effective team, many factors should be focused on. Building harmony among the team members can be very influential also. Teamwork increases the level of production of a particular team.

Critical Discussion on team management in the context of Hamptons Machinery Company

A team refers to a group of working people who all strive to gain the same goal. An ideal team has many characteristics such as skilled and productive manpower, organized and written documentation, specific and clear goal setting, focus on collective effort, and strong team structure. Hamptons Company maintains this prerequisite as a team-based company. Teamwork is to make the utmost effort to achieve some specific objectives and goals of some people. A team cannot achieve its goal without specific goals.

Teamwork also refers to accomplished by individuals working together without working alone or parallel; who must try to gain goals nearly and interdependently. Teamwork reduces the jeopardies of the company. It helps to improve and increase the production of the company. Teamwork increase and develop the members of the company to enable the utmost learning about organizational strategy. In this discussion, it is must need to mention the difference between teamwork and group work.

Differences Between Teamwork and Group Work

At first glance, it may seem that there is no difference between teamwork and group work. But there are some subtle differences between group and team. Group work refers to comparatively individual aims, separate accountability, and individual triumph or miscarriage, while teamwork indicates the collective effort, separate and reciprocal duties, and combined success and collective miscarriage in the team. As Hamptons Machinery is a company in this case the company follows characteristics of a team rather than the group.

Hampton an effective team always emphasizes the well-being of the members of the team, the personal satisfaction of every employee, and to development of overall performance within the team. Various factors help to engage the employees in teamwork, among them promoting the internal process of the team, supporting workers to work collectively, emphasizing targets, and developing of emotional situation of the employees.

Every company follows a separate process to run an organization. The effective process can develop the performance of the company such as collective and conjunctive team effort, following extraordinary leadership style and theories, maintaining the internal values and norms, maintaining organized team size in terms of capability, and following the scholarly process of managing an organization.

Leadership Style

Hamptons Machinery Company is following an effective leadership style as the company develops gradually. To get success in a team, various eminent elements improve team performance including, maintaining a proper communication system within the team, building mutual and reciprocal contracts and agreements among team members, showing proper and exact respect to the team members, building mentality to take responsibility to gain the aims, and supporting employees in every situation mentally and in economic perspectives. Hamptons Machinery Company maintains proper human resource management to develop the internal structure of the company.

Challenges and Barriers

Every company has challenges and barriers such as economic fluctuation, unstable organizational structure, lack of proper leadership style, lack of experienced manpower. Hamptons Machinery also faces some challenges regarding the economic, structural, and maintaining process, lack of trusty relationship among team members, absence of proper vow among team members of the company.

Recommendations based on the above discussion

In these circumstances, there some subjects can be recommended to Hamptons Machinery to improve the performance of the company. Theoretical leadership and management styles can be followed by Hamptons Machinery that is developed by many scholars worldwide widely such as Daniel Goleman’s leadership style. To produce the expected result, the company can operate basic things such as processes, methods of organizing the company.

The company should recruit experienced workers and employees such as technicians to repair machines and other parts of aircraft. The company should maintain an organized managing style. The factory of Hamptons Machinery Company is very clamorous. And in this situation, workers cannot work properly by paying attention to their job. To be an aircraft technician. It is very expensive to complete a study but at Hamptons Machinery the payment amount of the workers is not standard as an aircraft engineer expects.


It is possible to reach this conclusion after the above discussion, team, and group is not the same concept rather there are some differences between team and group. Hamptons as a machinery company works as a team rather than a group. The Hamptons Machinery uses leadership and management policies to run the company. Hamptons Machinery has all the features of an ideal team. The tendency to avoid the job and the tendency to avoid accountability also can be harmful to the company. After all, the Collective team effect can lead a company to get utmost success as well as the best result that a company wants to attain within a particular time frame.

Prepared By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Evolution of Contemporary Leadership Theories


The contemporary leadership theories include some recent leadership theories that developed after 1995. Leadership and Management skills are two inevitable expectations in the contemporary world contexts; these two skills have enormous scopes in the professional and academic career. Leadership and management have a long history of developing particular theories regarding technological context, social context, economic context, and other theoretical development systems. In management studies, there are almost four vital points that cover the whole area of management including, organizing issues, the power of motivating employees or workers, organization controlling power, and effective planning for the organization. So, motivation management theory covers some approaches regarding the change of human needs. Motivation theories are equity theory, expectancy theory, goal theory, and Hertzberg’s motivation theory.

Evolution of Contemporary Leadership Theories

The contemporary leadership theories include some recent leadership theories that developed after 1995. The first modern theory indicates the paternalistic leadership theory. The paternalistic leadership theory covers those leadership skills where a leader can choose freely which will be better for the subordinates. But this theory is the opposite of the authoritarian style of leadership.

Digital Leadership Theory

Digital leadership theory was developed in the late 1990s and this theory includes modern perspectives of leadership thoughts regarding micro and Nanotechnology-based information systems and the use of social media.

Tribal Leadership Style

Tribal leadership styles are available in many regions over the world including Native American, South American, and Canadian as well as Amazon tribal leadership style.

The Disruptive Leadership

The disruptive leadership style emphasizes building a real connection with people within a team, the positive thinking power that brings positive change, creating a diverse environment through cultural invention, and executing the rules and norms effectively in the society.

Authentic Leadership Theory

Authentic leadership theory focuses on creating strong worth and to a very diaphanous target. This theory also emphasizes individual discipline and building up a potential connection between leaders and subordinates. The trajectory of leadership shows how was the situation of previous leadership theories and styles and how is the condition of leadership in the present time and in the future which factors can be developed in the leadership practicing track.

In previous, leadership style was authoritative rather than motivating people. The complexities were present in the leadership style as well as the practice of giving punishments due to the errors by the subordinates. Sometimes leaders were used to enforce the people to do any particular task. In the present world context, leadership styles are improving gradually and leaders are trying to be more effective than in the past. In past the leadership style was authoritative than in the present leadership style is more motivated and effective.

Evolution of Management Theories

Management is the process of maintaining an organization or company by effective planning, commanding subordinates to end a task in an organized way, and the capability to control all of the existing components in a particular working area. The features of traditional management approaches are lucidity of organizational objectives, the usefulness of organizational composition, proficiency in a practical area, the fission of labor in working section, limpidity in responsibilities in all levels of the organization. Traditional approaches include those theories that were developed between 1800 to 1900 and there were three most effective approaches.

Scientific Management Theory

The first traditional approach of management theory was scientific management theory that was developed by Frederick. The most significant parts of this theory are the capability of production analysis, the power of motivating to find better outcomes by proficiency. Many companies and organizations are now using scientific management theory such as; the fast-food manufacturing company McDonald’s uses this theory.

Administrative Management Theory

Administrative management theory is the second theory of classical approach that was developed by Henri Fayol. This theory emphasizes an organized effort to sketch the organization. Nowadays, this theory is using in many organizations such as; General Motors.

Bureaucratic Management Theory

Bureaucratic management theory was the last theory of classical approach. Max Weber developed this theory, who was born in Germany. This theory includes five features as; provision of the working sector, specialization of working role in the organization, maintaining the organizational hierarchy, improvement of formal regulations in the organization, and the fair recruitment system to include employees in the organization. At present, this theory is using in many organizations and companies such as; Police departments and the prison system as well as in business organizations, for example, this theory is using in the academic area including universities and schools.

Machine Bureaucracy

Machine Bureaucracy is another bureaucratic management theory that is more formal and more special than Max Weber’s theory but the main objectives of this theory are relatively the same as Max Weber’s theory. Mintzberg developed this theory in 1983.

Kaizen- Japanese Management Theory

In Japanese culture the management theory also developed. In 1986 Masaaki Imai developed a management theory that is familiar as Kaizen- Japanese management theory. The main objectives of this theory are Kai and Zen that are two Japanese words that stand for Change to better and together these two words refer to the gradual improvement of the condition. Kaizen management theory is using in many organizations such as nestle, Lockheed Martin, and Toyota.

The Behavioral Management Theory

The behavioral Management approach is a set of some effective theories that focus on motivation to the worker. Human relations theory is another pivotal theory in management. And, the main features of this theory are the person-to-person relationship building and analysis of their behavior.


Every organization and company follows a specific theory of leadership and management. Contemporary leadership theories have long history and leadership theories are developing day by day. Besides practicing leadership theory, an organization must need a particular management theory. Management theories have also a vast journey from the beginning of these theories. The management and leadership theory helps to run the organizations properly. So, Management and leadership theories are very important in socio-economic and technological perspectives.

Prepared By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Evolution of Traditional Leadership Theories


Leadership and management have a long history of developing particular theories regarding technological context, social context, economic context, and other theoretical development systems. As leadership is a skill and quality, it develops day by day by providing some approaches and theories to practice in practical and professional life. In chronological perspectives, after servant leadership theory, Max Weber developed a very influential leadership theory that is Charismatic Leadership theory. Technological context includes the main field of economic perspectives, industrial management process, creating professional roles, to maintain business cultures and these types of area. This paper will demonstrate the evolution of traditional leadership theories.

Overview of the Methodology

In this paper, the author will emphasize on qualitative analysis of leadership and management theories and approaches. To explain the theories, the author also relies on the secondary data analysis method. To demonstrate the critical things, the author relies on some proficient international journals and published books. The author also emphasizes some desk reports, analytical journals and research papers to do an effective and critical evaluation of management and leadership theories.

Evolution of Traditional Leadership Theories

Leadership is the process of motivating the working situation of subordinates positively and leading the workers towards a target to attain within a particular time frame. From the very initial stage of the pre-industrial period, the leadership approaches and theories developed gradually.

Great Man Theory

The first appearance of leadership theory was around the beginning of the nineteenth century in between 1900 to 1930 AD. The first developed theory was the Great Man Theory. Great Man theory indicates that the leadership quality of a man or woman is not attainable by experience or practice but it indicates that the leadership quality is an in-born quality that a person got as a gift from God. In this way, those who got the leadership quality by in-born they are being separate from general people.

Participative Leadership Theory

The next leadership theory is the Participative leadership theory that was developed by K Lewin in 1939. This theory allows the teammates to give their opinion to decide by the leader and this theory also includes inclusive participation of the people.

The Behavioral Theory

The behavioral theory focuses on the behavior of the leader towards the people and this theory is the reverse of great man leadership theory as this theory indicates that leadership skill can be attained by the experience not in-born. This leadership theory became developed between 1960 to 1964.

The Contingency Leadership Theory

The contingency leadership theory is the most effective theory that indicates an effective leader can make his decision by analyzing the situation. When a leader is not able to face the situation properly, then he will not regard as an effective leader.

The Servant Leadership Theory

The servant leadership theory includes the collective interaction with the people in a group to attain a particular target. This theory also refers to maintaining diversity in the group and focusing on being an unselfish leader as well. In servant leadership theory, a leader led the team from the front by encouraging the people and by inspiring them. This theory is the reverse of the power-generating leadership style. The servant leadership theory was developed in 1970.

Charismatic Leadership Theory

Charismatic leadership theory has many positive and negative features that make the theory effective to apply in professional life as well as practical life. The charismatic leadership theory includes the higher confidence level of the leaders, the capability to influence the subordinates to gain positive changes, a charismatic leader must be visionary minded, a charismatic leader can present him in every situation to handle positively, and a charismatic leader can control the emotions of the subordinates to lead them towards the target.

Charismatic leadership theory also has some barriers such as charismatic leadership style is self or person oriented and need of power to apply in the professional career. As this theory is power practice-based, in this case, there can be an abuse of power in the practical field. In this theory, there is a lack of clarity of the leadership method. A charismatic leader can break the trust and faith of his subordinates in the road of his leadership journey as sometimes leaders need to apply power to reach the goal.

Ethical Leadership

Ethical leadership refers to that theory that follows by the full of stature and respect to the common beliefs regarding the moral and ethical perspectives of the subordinates in a team. In this way, the ethical leadership theory emphasizes the level of honesty of a leader, the tendency of being considerate about the situation, the level of clearer in terms of faithfulness. Ethics-based leadership also covers the basic standard and honor of a person of the society. In this theory, a leader cannot decide on the standard of the basic norms and values that inhabit a society. Ethical leadership theories have almost five principles that make heavy the ethical theory.

Among the principles, the first principle is to be respectful to the team members and colleagues. Secondly, try to build up a community based on ethical values. Thirdly to attain the goals it should be trying to work based on honesty. Fourthly to try of the show the justice manner to the peoples. And finally to serve the peoples having all of the ethical norms and values.

Entrepreneurial Leadership Theory

Entrepreneurial leadership theory refers to corresponding and putting in the motion to support the trend of participants. And who are became reformed by a particular target and vision to discover and unfold a strategic norm production. This theory includes generating long-term mutual relationships between the members. This theory also focuses on defining an effective power by the capacity and capability to impress other people. To emphasize setting a specific method of directing people positively. So, to motivate people by the charismatic way. To improve positive change in the society.

Prepared by: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Business Laws and Ethics


Every profession has different values, norms, and ethics to follow by professionals. In the business sector, there are also particular laws, ethics, and rules. From the emergence of laws and ethics, many times have reformed laws to negotiate with the demands of situations and demands of professionals. Business laws and ethics are not very different from the mainstream laws in a specific region. All countries do have not the same laws though. The second part of the assignment includes the essential ingredients of the law that can apply in the context of a business or in an organization.

The Employment Law in the United Kingdom

In The UK, the most significant laws and ethics are followed by people. The employment law of the United Kingdom is a play significant role in the field of business and the professional sector. The laws emerge from the Roman and medieval periods. The employment laws include working time, the number of wages, and the internal behavior of the employer to the employees.

In the UK, laws are examined by lawyers and by the justices to apply in the professional sector. After the world second war, the employment laws in the UK were established very significantly to provide basic rights to the employees. In the UK, there are also different sections to describe female workers’ rights. To eliminate discrimination the significance of laws is very much. In the 1975s, in the UK there was a law that prohibited discrimination among all genders to provide equal gender-based rights.


Religion-Based violence Should be Prohibited: 2003 Laws

In 2003, there was another significant law that describes religion and religion-based concerns such as all types of religion-based violence should be prohibited. In 1972 there was a pivotal law was introduced to reduce discrimination among people in terms of the number of wages in the working sector and working time. Since 1979 a very important law is now practiced in the working sector to give actual and proper rights to the workers and employees in every sector of working condition such as from machinery factory to school and official sectors.

From the 1980s other vital laws are practiced in the employment sector to give workers rights. Since 1970 many acts and laws are developed by the govt. of The UK to ensure a favorable environment for the workers. A parliament member named Margaret Beckett drafted the first act since the 1970s was the equal pay Act 1970. The main ingredients of the act were preventing the discrimination between males and females to pay their actual payments. In that act, another feature was to maintain a safe environment for the workers.

The National Minimum Age Act 1998

The law focuses on ensuring equal wages to the workers in every term such as specific skills, equal efforts by the workers. According to The National Minimum age Act 1998 by the govt. of the UK, emphasize on to fix a particular wage or payment rate by the employer as the workers can choose the work if a workers want to do the job or unwanted to do the job. In this circumstance, the features of the law are to maintain wage rate and the law helps workers to decide to do a job. The law has also some different provisions to ensure the wage. The law also emphasizes specific sectors such as agriculture and other job sector.

Case Study

Every contract has some specific components. A contract is a mutual or reciprocal commercial or professional agreement between two parties. A contract can made with more than two parties, and nowadays it can see in many sectors.

Accuracy of Working Condition

In a mutual contract, there is another component to examine how the contract will execute. In a contract, it is also another most important factor to consider if the contract is formal or well written. It is necessary to know if the contract violates any rules or regulations of the current laws of the country.

In a contract there are also some specific factors those are the number of payments of the contract. And every effective contract must include a specific amount of payments. There is a very important type of contract that is the organization or firm based fix price agreement. It also indicates that workers or contract receivers will get the amount of payment.

Working Period

In a contract, the mention of the time or working period is also a very important factor. There are some risk factors of a contract those also important components of an agreement. The contract is very important in the business and in the commercial sector to identify the effectiveness of the contract. To run a contract it is also important to know how the legal can support will be provided if needed.

Time Maintenance

Time maintenance is a basic component of a legal contract that makes it fruitful and effective to run. A contract signs for a particular task and after the end of the task. And unethical contracts have no legal support by the authority or the administration department.

Without written documentation, a contract cannot run properly in any sector such as the commercial or professional sector. The legal purpose of a contract is also consider as the component of a contract. If the contract does not describe as the legal procedure then the contract has no basis for legal agreements.


It is possible to say that by applying laws, the rights of the workers can reserve in every sector. In The UK the mentioned laws play a vital role to reserve employees’ basic rights. There are mainly two types of contract that can perform in the business or professional environment. But the written contract is more effective than a verbal contract.

Prepared By: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

Effective Teamwork and Communication Skills


Effective teamwork and communication are essential for the growth and success of an organization in this modern and dynamic business world. Organizations for not have cultures of effective teamwork and communication might go down. However, throughout this report, an understanding of the models of communication and the skills needed for communication, the poor communication, and the ways to get out of the poor communication will be demonstrated.

Models of communication

In an effective teamwork and communication system, there will have a sender and a receiver. They will exchange information through different channels like telephone, verbal, voicemail, e-mails, online, letters, media, and others possible. Generally, the sender sends messages and the receiver provides feedback. Now, apart from the understanding of different communication models have been demonstrated in the following-

The Shannon-Weaver Mathematical Model

This model was developed in 1949 by Shannon and Weaver. It is called the mother of all models of communication or a mathematical theory of communication. In detail the model is-

Information source

Generally, a sender is the source of information who selects desired information or message to send to the receiver.

Transmitter (encoder)

A transmitter or an encoder converts messages of information source or sender into signals.  We can understand the role of a transmitter from the example of the telephone.


There will have channels for transmitting messages to a specific receiver. The channels might be telephone, verbal, internet, and others relevant.

Noise source

During transmission from the encoder to decoder or receiver a message might be distracted by sounds from different sources like horns, crowd noise, talking of others, etc.

Receiver (decoder)

The noise is received by a receiver in the other end which means in the destination end. The receiver decodes messages from signals for a better understanding of the person or entities in the destination.


In the destination, there will have a person or an entity or others who or which receive the decoded information. Thus, an entire communication system works and helps exchange messages.

Berlo Communication Model

This model of communication is also known as the S-M-C-R model of communication. However, David Berlo developed in 1960. The details of the model are as follows-

Source or sender

According to this model at first there will have a source or sender of message or information. Message from the sender or source can be influenced by the communication skills, attitude, knowledge, social systems, and culture of the sender. Now, the communication skills of the sender refer to speaking, presenting, reading, writing, and others. If the sender is good at these skills the communication becomes effective otherwise not. The attitude of a sender in case of dealing with an audience, receiver, and subject might change meaning and consequences as well as other aspects of messages or information. The knowledge of both sender and receiver helps make communication more effective. Social systems like values, beliefs, religions, circumstances and other aspects influence a communication system. And lastly, cultural differences can turn into one of the major problems in communication.


The message from the sender or source might be of different types like text, audio, video, and others. The message gets influenced by the factors like- content, elements, treatment, structure, and code. The content of the message refers to what is the message and what it is about etc. Elements are like gestures, signs, and others which have influences on the sent message. Structure refers to the ways through which a message is structured. And finally, code refers to the forms of messages like- texts, languages, videos, gestures, music, and others.


The channels transfer messages in such ways as if our five senses can catch them and make the communication effective. Apart from that, our five senses work as channels of communication such as hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting.


The transmitted, as well as a decoded message at the end, reaches a receiver. The decoded message can also be influenced by the communication skills of the receiver, his or her attitude, knowledge, social systems, and culture. Thus, the communication model of Berlo works.

Schramm Communication Model

In 1948 Schramm developed this model of communication. The elements or steps of Schramm’s model of communication have been demonstrated in the following-


In line with the communication model of Schramm, at first there will have a sender of the message. He or she will send a legible and understandable message to the receiver. Moreover, the message must be relevant, essential, and precise. There will have an encoder, interpreter, and decoder on the sender’s end.


The message might be a text, audio, video, or anything else.


There will have channels like the internet, letters, telephone, personal channels, and others for transmitting a message to the receiver.


Finally, there will have a receiver of the message or information sent by the sender. Similarly, on the receiver’s end, there will have an encoder, decoder, and interpreter for making communication effective. Thus and through these steps communication takes place as per this Help of Schramm.

Communication Skills and How this Help

There need communication skills to make communication effective.  Some of such communication skills with the reference to the case study of Barry and communication barriers have been presented-

Active listening

Both the sender and the receiver must be active listeners. Without active listening, the aim of the communication might not reach. In the case study of Barry, the employees are not active listeners.

Clarity and Completeness

There must have clarity in communication and the communication must be complete. Moreover, the sender and receiver must-have skills for communicating clearly and completely. Unclear and incomplete communication is not helpful for an organization. Such as- due to the hurries in training, language, background differences, and high turnover of employees the communication process in the case study of Barry was not clear and complete.

Concise and Concrete

The communication process should be concise and understandable to both receiver and sender. Further, the sender and receiver should communicate concisely and there have concrete signs of communication. A long session of communication sometimes might be the reason for the boringness of both.

Correct and Coherent

A communication process should be right and coherent. In the case study of Barry, we see that Barry failed to communicate correctly as though the communication was coherent.

Courteousness, empathy, and respect

The receiver and the sender in a communication process should be courteous towards each other. They should have respect for each other, should show respect to each other, be friendly to each other, and lastly, should understand the emotions of each other. In the case study of Barry, Barry failed to show these skills. Therefore, communication is ineffective in the restaurant of Barry.

Feedback and asking questions

Lastly, both sender and receiver should give appropriate feedback on each other’s communication methods, and other areas relevant. It will help make the communication effective by helping to identify the mistakes of both. Moreover, both of them can ask questions about the points they cannot understand or have problems with. In the case study of Barry feedback and asking questions are not present. Both the sender and the receiver must have these communication skills to make communication effective.

Poor Communication and The Ways of Improvement

When there are misunderstandings in the communication process or if there are problems between. Poor communication found in the case study of Barry which means in the restaurant of Barry between Barry and his staff. The staffs of Barry fail to understand what said Barry, they don’t go with the rules and regulations of the restaurant, and they even don’t abide by the directions of Barry. Now, the poor communication between Barry and his staff can improve in the following ways-

Keeping communication simple

The communication process should be simple. Like the communication method of Schramm, there should have simple, clear, concise, concrete, and understandable ways of communication.

Establishing standards of communication

Specific standards regarding communication, as well as clear norms and expectations, should be there in Barry’s restaurant for his staff to get out of the poor communication. Such as standards regarding how to talk with colleagues, what languages will use and whatnot, the possible behaviors, etc. In every theory demonstrated in the above-discussed standards of communication.

Communication measurement methods or processes

Barry should have communication measurement strategies, methods, and or processes for measuring standard or quality of communication whether the communication process is going in line with the standards set or not. Such ads employee surveys and email open rates etc. Different processes of communication have mentioned in the above theories.

Consistent and constant

The communication of Barry and his staff should be consistent and constant. Interruptions in communication might make the situation worse further. The theories above suggest consistent and constant communication processes.

Proactive feedback

Both Barry and his staff should provide feedback willingly on problems in communication and other areas relevant for improving poor communication.

Leveraging technology

Technologies can leverage for making the communication of Barry and his staff effective.  Technological aspects of communication focus on in the model of Shannon and Weaver.

Implementing changes

Lastly, Barry should be strict in implementing the mentioned changes in his restaurant for getting out of poor communication.

Conclusion and recommendations

Effective teamwork and communication help an organization reach its goals and objectives effectively. Barry should go with the suggestions made as well as the ways and processes mentioned in the models to get out of the poor communication problem. Besides effective teamwork and communication, leadership also play vital role in an organization.

Prepared by: ATM Qutayba, Student, University of Dhaka

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